Honors 11th – Final Independent Reading Posting

Your posting for this grading period must be completed by June 10th.

Find an article of any length that relates to a topic being studied in class, i.e. Modernism, or any of the post WWII decades arts & culture in America.  Your posting must include:

  • A link to the article
  • An explanation of why you chose this article/ how it relates to what you’re studying in English class at the moment (~50-100 words)
  • A summary of the article (~200-250 words)
  • Your personal thoughts on the article, for example whether you agree or disagree, how interesting it was, or how well it helped you understand a the topic from class. (~200-250 words)
  • This is meant to  be an academic extension of what you do in class, so your source must have some level of professional or academic credibility.  No tabloids, please

16 Responses to “Honors 11th – Final Independent Reading Posting”

  1. Zachary Gelber Says:

    Zachary Gelber
    Mr. Pores
    English, Period 5
    June 6th, 2016
    The Wage Gap: Myth or Fact?
    Recently we studied some feminist work written by Gloria Steinem, primarily related to women in the workplace during the late 20th century. According to Steinem, women were not seen as a necessity in the workplace, and that men often held preference in getting a job. Although many women of this time were single, divorced, or widowed, many did not see a very good reason in giving them employment. Today, female employment is hardly a question, but now the topic has moved to the wage gap, the disparity in pay between males and females. I find that the feminist movement of the past were reasonable and justified, but personally, I feel today’s feminist movement is not as necessary, at least in America. Through this article I hoped to research just how credible many of feminism’s arguments truly are.
    Many female rights groups often bring up the wage gap when discussing their goals. Based on statistics, women make an average of 78 cents for every dollar a man makes. Even the White House has repeated this claim, and has pushed things such as Equal Pay Day to amend this injustice. However, further investigation into the statistics of this claim begins to cast doubt on the sexism and prejudice that supposedly perpetuate the wage gap. The reason the sexes are paid different amounts is not due to sexism, but due to factors like hours worked and the type of job. For example, men on average work more overtime hours, meaning they accrue a larger pay. Women tend to prefer more flexible hours, which often lead to a smaller pay check. The wage gap is not due to purposeful discrimination and hate, as many feminists would like to believe, but to female choices and preferences. Even Hillary Clinton, a prominent female politician and presidential candidate, has made use of this faulty statistic. Although many women may suffer from sexism and gender discrimination across the world, it is not fair to use incorrect data to fulfill such agendas. Doing so casts doubt and suspicion on their future actions.
    Many feminist works that I have seen seem to lament how difficult it is being a woman. Although probably true a few decades and centuries ago, this claim has persisted even today. Although certain parts of the world still demonstrate sexual discrimination, like the Middle East, I feel that it is less applicable to first world countries like the USA. Most women I have met seem remarkably independent, and I don’t really see signs of oppression or discrimination. Women can own businesses, run for office, and do many things women could only dream of only a few decades prior. Abortions are still a controversial subject, but more and more states are beginning to approve of it. Furthermore, abortion is not just a female issue, but a religious and moral issue as well. What bothers me most, however, is the constant demonization of men made by some of the more radical feminists. These feminists seem to consider all men as some form of evil and part of the collective effort to support the patriarchy, specifically created to oppress women. I don’t know about other men, but I certainly am not part of some unified coalition built to oppress some women. I do not think it is fair to judge one person just because of the group they belong in, like calling a German a Nazi. I found this article fascinating as it sheds some light on the true nature of “sexual discrimination” constantly heralded by radical feminists. Although the world today certainly isn’t perfect, we are much more tolerant and understanding of others than we were a century ago.

  2. Cathrina Majd Says:

    Cathrina Majd
    Honors Am. Lit. Period 5
    5 June 2016

    Independent Reading Research

    Link to article: Walsh, Kenneth T. “The 1960s: A Decade of Change for Women.” US News. U.S.News & World Report.

    Explanation: I chose this article on a topic of the women in the 1960s because it also relates to what we’re learning in class right now. We’re learning about American Art and Culture in the 1960s, which also relates to the decade of women and the more rights they were slowing receiving. Women were slowly becoming accepted in American Culture.

    Summary of Article: The article “The 1960s: A Decade of Change for Women” written by Kenneth T. Walsh talks about the cultural changes for women. It discusses about how the 1960s was a transitioning era for women in American society. Many women also began to use birth control. This helped women who didn’t want children, and not getting pregnant gave them more choices, especially in the workforce. Americans soon came to accept feminists and what they stood for. The article talks about how in 1966, the National Organization for Women was also formed. Feminists soon began to be a very big part of the decade and it was a very important movement, for women especially. Many women were also fighting for equal pay and an end to domestic violence. Numerous amounts of women soon began to get the rights they always deserved. The option for birth control, being able to work somewhere other then the home, feminists, equal pay, etc. This was just the beginning of women getting more freedom, like eventually getting the right to vote. This era, the massive post-world war II baby boom generation, was both a great time but also a bad time. It was a decade of many amazing changes, but also some bad. Although, the 1960s was a very great time, especially for women.

    Personal Thoughts of Article: Reading this article was pretty interesting. It was very similar to what we are learning in class right now also. The 1960s was practically the beginning of when women were slowing getting more freedom and being more accepted in society. As a female myself, its amazing to read about how us female began to receive more freedom and more rights. If women back then didn’t fight for their independence and freedom, us women would still be struggling and not getting the freedom we deserve. Its great to hear about all these amazing changes that have happened, and are still happening till this day. This just influences many more people to make even more bigger and better changes for our decade. Us women began from barely getting any freedom and not being treated the same to finally receiving all these rights. Throughout the decades, we got equal pay, being able to work somewhere other than home, the right to vote, the opportunity for birth control, being seen and also being treated the same as men. Although it took a while for women to finally get these rights, women eventually did and are now able to get the same opportunities as men do.

  3. Aidan Fitzpatrick Says:

    Article: https://tavaana.org/en/content/1960s-70s-american-feminist-movement-breaking-down-barriers-women

    Aidan Fitzpatrick
    Mr. Pores
    HAL Period 5
    1 June, 2016


    I chose this article because it relates to the excerpt we read in class by Gloria Steinem. Since we are currently studying the 1970’s, the feminist movement at the time seemed a fitting topic to research. It interests me because the topic helps me to realize that the majority of gender inequality in America was addressed very recently. Previously the nineteenth amendment, ratified in 1920, gave women the right to vote. Yet, there still existed this largely patriarchal society. I find it interesting that this particular women’s movement happened a mere forty years ago. It may seem like a long time but in the context of American history, it is a brief period.

    The article traces the beginnings of the American feminists movement from the 1960-70’s. Women’s lives in this period were centered around the family; they were expected to marry young and have babies. Most stayed at home and tended to their husbands and children. This huge inequality existed and most women couldn’t find jobs other than, to an extent, clerical work. Legislation allowed the husband to control every aspect of his wife’s life. Betty Friedan brought this inequality to attention in her writings and motivated other women to join the movement for their rights. As the movement progressed full steam ahead, women were able to accomplish many advancements of their rights despite heavy criticism. For example, they lobbied legislation and formed organizations to improve their rights. One such of these organizations was NOW (National Organization for Women). The ERA (Equal Rights Amendment) was proposed in 1970 due to pressure from the women’s movement. However, it took too long to ratify and the movement had already accomplished many of the things that the ERA was supposed to do. These are some of the things accomplished by the feminist movement. The movement is also known for not having single leader or group – it was a collective movement. Ultimately the feminist movement allowed women to supposedly have the same opportunities as men.

    Personally, I can neither agree or disagree with the article since it was simply recalling something that happened. I can agree, however, with the feminist movement. It fought for rights long overdue in American society and I admire that. It goes to show how slow America may be in accommodating change and how conservative many used to be (and still are). There is still inequality in the workplace but now has shifted less from women and more onto people of different ethnicities and/or sexualities, disabilities, etc. I am glad that these problems are being recognized and that people are trying to fix them. These days, people are much more active in advocating for rights because now there lies a hope in this lack of rights that many did not see even during the feminist movement. This is a reason that the feminist movement was so opposed – women were seen as incompetent of performing the jobs of men but it turns out they are just as qualified. Rights movements are making great advancements today and I believe these advancements are helping America to achieve a better and more cultured society.

  4. Dimitrije Kostic Says:

    Dimitrije Kostic
    Mr. Pores
    English, Period 5
    Independent Reading
    At the moment in class we are learning about the modernist movement in literature. This article has relevance to this topic as it explores modernism in a different media- art. Art and literature are influenced by one another and the development of the new artistic styles seen in art reflect some aspects of modernism in literature.

    This Article “Modernism and its legacy” goes through the history and establishment of Modernism as an art form, and its lasting legacy. The article looks at the Modernist movement through the art perspective, specifically as it happened in Britain. This article is obviously biased as it is basically the history of the style of art in the view of the Tate modern, a British based museum. However, it does outline the roots of the movement and how it evolved from the invention of photography and the stylistic innovations of of influential painters. During the 1950’s, ‘60’s, Britain experienced a period of great social change after emerging from WW2, and as the changes settled, modernist’s “individual styles” were blended and trimmed to create an international language. This style broke cultural and societal values and could be interpreted throughout the world with the similar styles evolving in different countries at the time.With this establishment from a broad base, the entire period is based on evolution, and the article concludes with “[It’s] is always adapting to the changing scope of contemporary art. It’s where the newest art finds its place and where–who knows–you might even find yourself or someone you know one day.”

    The change to modernism from previous neo-classical styles marked a changing point in history. Artists were no longer focused on providing realism or recreating the works of the old masters, but rather developing their own unique styles. The breadth of topics during this era is a direct attribution to artists new creative styles. This exploration of new ideas greatly interested me and is what prompted me to choose this as my topic. Having studied this in both Art History and English, the history of this movement is something I wanted to learn more about. From this article I learned the origins of modern art in Britain. Although modernism was more or less a global movement, studying it in-depth at one place has allowed me to understand its diverse roots.

    “Modernism and Its Legacy.” Khan Academy. N.p., 2015. Web. 06 June 2016. .

  5. kayleewilliams Says:


    Our dissuasions in class revolve around the American society post-WW2. The article I chose to analyze was found in the New York Times, it’s called “Why Can’t We Stop Talking About New York in the late 1970’s” written by Edmund White in 2015. The reason I chose this article was because I felt it related to our past area of study, Modernism, while also tying in our current topic, the Seventies. New York is a central hub for culture now and it was back in the seventies which makes their newspaper a good source on American culture.
    New York City has always been the most culturally rich city in America. The city has had the largest population in the Unites states for decades. Although NYC is dangerous now due to high crime rates it isn’t nearly as bad as it was in the late seventies and early eighties. The late seventies in New York city were some of the worst documented years in the city’s history yet so many people also label those years as the best years of their lives. A new popular subject of art is nostalgia for the seventies, people have begun expressing a yearning for the city to be more democratic like it used to be in the seventies. Artists have begun feeling a lack of inspiration in a city that they feel is “too safe”. These years that some classify as the best years are classified as that due to the movement that begun in the East Village that included the creation of punk music, disposable painting, and gonzo journalism. While the movement of rebellion was in East village there was another movement that was outdated, modernism. However, it was no longer called modernism it was referred to as a “High Mandarin Moment”, it was the dying remains of late-age modernism and elitism. New York City felt smaller back then. In the 70’s artists were everywhere, the community felt more inclusive of artists. Until the early eighties the New York City community was accepting of all different kinds of people including gay people and artists who before would always be outcasts.
    I found this article interesting because over the last year or so I have also noticed a revival of the seventies. Although the examples that White used where more about writers using the seventies as a new setting, I have noticed it in other areas of art. For example, I watch fashion week and for the last couple seasons I have seen a massive amount of seventies trends making a come back. I agreed with the article that even though times were bad in the late seventies of New York City, the culture at that time was legendary. The late seventies to early eighties have become idealized. The people that lived through that time only remember the good since it was so long ago and the people who are hearing all the amazing stories have no idea what it was really like. In all honesty I believe that the hostile environment of NYC bred the culture, in order for people to cope they used art as an outlet. When you learn about the late seventies, like we did in class, the whole scene seems really glamours. You hear about the good bands, free concerts at cool bars, and the intriguing people but you don’t hear too much about the negative aspects that enabled and caused the people to act so recklessly.

  6. Dmitri Todd Says:

    Dmitri Todd
    Mr. Pores
    Honors AM LIT
    Period: 5


    Link to the article: http://www.britannica.com/art/Modernism-art

    The article Modernism-Art by Kathleen Kuiper gives insight to the art style that is modernism. The article is all about modernism and its affects to art and culture, which we have been learning about through the books, articles, and poetry that we have read in class.
    Modernism fostered a period of experimentation in the arts from the late 19th to the mid-20th century, particularly in the years following World War I. Although prewar works by Henry James, Joseph Conrad, and other writers are considered Modernist, Modernism as a literary movement is typically associated with the period after World War I. The enormity of the war had undermined human-kinds faith in the foundations of Western society and culture, and postwar Modernist literature reflected a sense of disillusionment and fragmentation.The term Modernism is also used to refer to literary movements other than the European and American movement of the early to mid-20th century.Over the span of these movements, artists increasingly focused on the intrinsic qualities of their media, line, form, and color and moved away from inherited notions of art.In the late 20th century a reaction against Modernism set in.
    The article really helped me understand more about modernism and its effects on art culture by presenting all of the information in a straight forward and organized outline. It also gave me more information than I had already had, for instance; “The enormity of the war had undermined humankind’s faith in the foundations of Western society and culture, and postwar Modernist literature reflected a sense of disillusionment and fragmentation. A primary theme of T.S. Eliot’s long poem The Waste Land (1922), a seminal Modernist work,” (Kuiper, Modernism-art).
    Surprisingly the article held my attention and instead of searching for another article I kept on reading, which if you know anything about modernism, it’s a hard thing to keep the attention of the reader. But alas, I finished the article and attained some more knowledge that I wouldn’t have gotten if not for this article. In my opinion modernism is a pretty bland topic and is something that doesn’t interest me, but while i was reading this article I found myself actually interested. Modernism not only affected poetry and other writing styles, it also affected music and dance. For instance a dance rebellion against ballet and traditional dance culture had started because of modernism.
    Without modernism the world would actually be even more bland, but were definitely in the right direction. More and more people are fighting the social norms and have been for centuries. A world full of individual and unique minds may not be here at the present but with each rebellious dance, song, or film, we as a society will get there.

  7. Matthew L. Says:

    Matthew Lok
    Mr. Pores
    Honors American Literature
    Period 5
    Independent Reading Assignment
    “Effects of Watergate: The Good and the Bad”
    By U.S. News Staff

    Link: http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2014/08/08/effects-of-watergate-the-good-and-the-bad

    1. Why I Chose This Article
    Our most contemporary class studies consists of a decade-by-decade study of American culture, and currently are studying the anti-political nature of the 70’s. One of the most infamous events to occur in the 1970’s was the Watergate scandal, in which criminals associated with the White House itself attempted to break into the Watergate Complex and wiretap the Democratic National Convention; following Nixon’s attempts to cover up the incident, Congress began a series of investigations that exposed a variety of illicit activities, both planned and executed. While my American history class covered the scandal itself, the course did not describe the immediate and lasting political consequences of the incident. Because the article was originally written only a few weeks after Nixon’s resignation, I wanted to not only see the public reactions at the pinnacle of the scandals, but evaluate the accuracy of the article’s predictions for the post-Nixon future.

    2. Brief Summation
    The article begins stating that as the Watergate scandal becomes clearer to the public, so does its long-term influence on politics. Briefly glossing over various immediate effects of the scandal, the Staff go on to discuss an increasing public desire for honest and transparent government, using statements from both the former Attorney General Richardson and the at-the-time current Senator Griffin. Furthermore, the Staff mentions other popular predictions, including a rise in independent voters, a weakened Executive branch, and an ethically clean Democratic nomination for the 1976 election.
    Going into more detail, the article describes the immediate effects of Watergate on reforming the campaign and election system. The Staff states that numerous politicians have received messages reflecting a general distrust of politicians amongst the public, going on to list tentative election reforms proposed by both the House of Representatives and the Senate, mainly to limit and control campaign funds. In a similar vein, several politicians who willingly disclosed their finances were listed as well, which is noted as an unusual occurrence. Likewise, the article described the efforts of other politicians, such as Representative du Pont, to reduce the influence of large donors by using self-implemented contribution limits.
    The article also discuss the increasing worries among party members. Citing Malcolm Moos, a political scientist and former advisor to Eisenhower, the Staff relates the fears that the Watergate scandal has weakened the bipartisan system to a point where it can be destroyed by a rising number of independent voters. Likewise, the parties are concerned with the high amounts of political dropouts relating to Watergate; Republicans in particular are disturbed by a large amount of party members switching affiliations to the Democrats, as well as recent polls showing one of the lowest percentages of adults belong to the Republicans in its party’s history.
    Moving on from the bipartisan effects of Watergate, the article describes potential changes for the Executive Branch. Now deceased Senator Hugh Scott describes several new laws designed to limit the President’s powers to start war and appoint a head of the Office of Management and Budget.
    The article concludes with quotes from Moos and Scott, describing the unavoidability of dishonesty and the significance of Watergate in U.S. history.

    3. Personal Thoughts
    In my opinion, the article was too reliant on quotations; although the sources were reputable, they were severely overused and detracted from the article’s overall flow. The article was also somewhat vague, mentioning various laws and activities conducted by politicians and state governments, but not actually describing them in detail. Overall, however, the article was very interesting to read, possessing a myriad of predictions for the political future. Considering present-day politics, many of the fears and goals set forth in the article are largely unrealized. While Malcolm Moos predicted the fall of the two-party system, it remains largely intact and powerful. Likewise, the assumption that campaigns will rely less on large donations has been proven false, with interest groups and lobbying providing significant campaign funds in exchange for political favors. And most noticeably, the article’s predictions for more trustworthy and honest politicians seems completely unfounded, with contemporary politicians still seen as corrupt and devious, and such opinions are sometimes justified. Regardless, this article showed the severity and scope of the Watergate scandal on American politics. Although Watergate did not have lasting effects, or at least the predicted effects, on the American political system, the article helped explain the cause for the great distrust and anti-government sentiment found in the 1970’s.

    Works Cited:
    U.S. News Staff. “Effects of Watergate: The Good and the Bad.”   Editorial. U.S. News & World Report 26 Aug. 1974: n. pag. US   News. U.S.News & World Report. Web. 12 June 2016.

  8. Mark Savercool Says:

    Mark Savercool
    Mr. Pores
    Hrs. Am. Lit.-Period 5
    June 9, 2016

    FINAL Independent Reading

    Link: http://www.mortaljourney.com/2011/03/1960-trends/hippie-counter-culture-movement

    The article that I chose is The Hippie Counterculture Movement (1960s) by Bhaddock. I chose this article because it explains the history of hippies, teenagers, and counterculture. In class, we are learning about the culture shifts of the 1950’s through the 1960’s, and the origin of teenagers as well as the onset of counterculture and how it affected great aspects of the time. This article also explains how 1960’s society characterized the features present in today’s community.

    In the article, it is explained how hippie counterculture first became popularized. Hippies primarily focus on being happy and live how they feel is best, just by living this way, they portray the importance of resisting conformity. The article continues to explain the basis of hippie culture, such as the fashion, ideals, and lifestyle, as well as the origin of the name “hippie,” which comes from “hipster,” and according to the article, “[…]was first coined by Harry Gibson in 1940 in a song titled Harry the Hipster”(Bhaddock 11). Following the hippie movement, the Beat Generation was introduced during the 1950’s. The Beat Generation was a group of American writers, many of them openly homosexual, who wrote Beat literature, which was quite renown due it’s explicit descriptions. The term “beat” came from “tired” or “beaten down.” Followers of this generation later became known as “Beatniks.” Many Beatniks later left San Francisco and New York to integrate with hippie society. A seemingly important hippie figure known as Chandler A. Laughlin II was greatly influenced by Beatnik culture. In the early sixties, Laughlin followed the lead of Beatniks and created a family-like identity among fifty other people in Greenwich Village in New York, and later Berkeley, California. Within his family, he recruited many famous singers and composers of popular bands. Laughlin and George Hunter later together opened the infamous Red Dog Saloon, in Virginia City, Nevada, where it became a renown place for drug use and psychedelic music festivals. The rest of the article explains the death and the impact of the hippie era. Despite the “positive vibes” that the hippie era displays, many believed it is what sparked the flaws of the era, perhaps due to the “counterculture” aspect.

    I found this article very interesting because correlates very well with the subject that we are being taught in class. It also provides an insight of how culture of today’s society was mainly characterized by this era, for it was the beginning of teenagers and nonconformity. At the end of the hippie culture, it is quite evident how it affected present day culture. Our regular fashion went from formal to casual, our acceptance for other races and religions surface to a great extent, and the use of drugs became quite prominent even to this day, despite the illegalization of many of them. People today overall became much more libertarian due to the hippie’s ideals and expectations. Although some may believe that the era brought upon an acceptance of mindlessness and violence, which I firmly believe is not the case, it made our society much more open minded. I believe that this era brought upon a better society.

  9. Cindy Le Says:

    Cindy Le
    Mr. Pores
    Honors American Literature, Period 5
    10 June 2016

    Why Rock and Roll?
    At this point in time in our class, we have gone over the influence of a very special music genre that applies to all generations: rock and roll. I have chosen this article not only because my teacher feels a strong connection with music, but also because many of my classmates seemed to be very attentive when the lesson was being conducted. To clarify, we have many music enthusiasts in our classroom! One to two weeks ago, we had a power point presentation about where rock and roll derived from and the history behind it.
    In the article, “Rock and Roll” written by teachrock.org, it clarifies what rock and roll really means. Most of us here are aware of that specific music genre, but most people consider rock and roll as something more, a culture. A culture of visualization, literacy, fashion, politics, dance culture, etc. According to the article, “the listener is always also a viewer, a thinker, a “reader,” a dancer, and so forth.” Rock and Roll is meant for awareness. With the intentions of just being another music category, it allows people to be woken about the world around humanity. Rock and roll has had a huge impact on American society by consistently helping set the continuing trend of pop culture and influencing other genres of music such as hip-hop. The discovery of rock and roll has allowed many artists to express many ideas and opinions with regards to many things, including political issues and the influence of government.
    The lesson we have gone through has honestly caused me to listen to many classic rock and roll, such as You Shook Me All Night Long by AC/DC. This article was extremely informative as to why listening to Rock and Roll has more meaning than solely for our ears enjoyment. I 100% agree with the idea the article is trying to get across. Rock and Roll has truly made its mark in history and continues to do so. I really admire this music community because it portrays an extremely hospitable and approachable environment for all ages, all different types of people.

  10. Kameron Woo Says:


    This article shows some of the scientific beliefs of the 1970s. This was interesting to me because in class we were studying the era of the 1970s and how the culture of the time. This article discusses the “coming ice age” that many scientists predicted that there was a coming ice age. They believed that there were many different signs that foreshadowed a coming ice age. Some of these signs were there being a cooling of the northern hemisphere. This made scientists believe that due to a large cooling we could be feeling the coming effects of an ice age. Another sign they believed foreshadowed an ice age was droughts in Africa. They also thought that the new ice age could be caused by a series of big volcanic eruptions because they would create large amounts of dust. These dust clouds could block out sunlight and trigger a new ice age. Another possible theory they had was that man-made pollution could block out the sun’s heat. I think this article is interesting because we can look back on what people thought was true with the knowledge of today. Such as how throughout time we knew that pollution was a problem, but now we know that the effects of man-made pollution create an opposite effect and cause global warming. It is also interesting to see the advances in modern science now knowing that there was no ice age. I think that in the same way that movies effected culture and society, science also has an effect on society. This can been seen in the present through many different studies. Now that we know of Global Warming there is more societal pressure to be green and help save the environment.

  11. Joaquin Caso Says:

    Joaquin Caso

    Mr. Pores

    HAL, Period 5

    12 June 2016


    The article “Almost Everything in ‘Dr Strangelove’ was True” , by Eric Schlosser, revises the film “Dr. Stranglove: Or How I learned to not worry and Love the Bomb” by Stanley Kubrick. The film conveys the dramatic energy of the 60s that developed under the cold war. We studied American works of art in class and one particular film that struck me was Kubrick’s. Through it, the director portrays the American fear of mass destruction created by nuclear weapons. The film is perfect to understand the decade, as we see how easy it was for a rogue American General to start a nuclear holocaust.

    The Article starts off by providing insight and contextualization on the movie itself. The author shows how many experts from the 60s, like an Expert on the Institute for Strategic Studies called the film “impossible on a dozen counts.” This is a great intro for the article for it shows how many viewers believed the events portrayed in the film were nothing more than a work of fiction. However, the article goes on to claim that the events in the film were actually quite possible. The author explains how on the events of a presidential assassination, or in any other case, leading officials are allowed to arm nuclear warheads. This measure, according to the article, was taken after the events surrounding the Kennedy Administration. In the end, the author provides more evidence on how easy it was for a nuclear war to start in the 60s.

    I personally like this article because it interestingly shows how easy it was for men to blow himself up. It struck a certain fear in me for how real it was. It helped me understand how fear shaped art in the 1960s. Through the film, the characters behave comedically. They literally crack jokes while they kill millions. This just shows how uncaring people were and this probably struck a larger fear in the audience at the theater. I mean, this are lives of millions of people and the highest ranking officials in the world are fighting in the war room. In conclusion, I really liked the movie and the article helped understand a little bit more on how easy a nuclear holocaust is possible.


  12. Jennifer Says:

    Jennifer Estrada
    Mr. Pores
    Honors American Literature
    10 June 2016

    Independent Reading Assignment

    I chose this article, because I believe it relates to the culture that emerged during the post-war era. After WWII, the Government, along with psychoanalyst Edward Bernays, utilized the research done by Sigmund Freud on the psychology of human behavior to effectively manipulate the masses into falling for consumerism and materialism. The hippies rebelled against these values. This coincides with the podcast we listened to in class, which examined the efficient techniques Edward Bernays used to control the population.
    The article discusses the hippie counterculture movement and its beliefs, such as the purpose of life was to be happy, disregarding others assumptions of what one should be. Hippies believed that mainstream culture was immensely flawed and corrupt. As a result, they envisioned their own utopian society founded on free love, peace, and eco friendly environment practices. Additionally, they promoted recreational use of psychedelic drugs, advocating that they led to the expansion of one’s consciousness. Hippies were known for their exotic way of dressing, which involved brightly-colored flamboyant clothing that they often retrieved from thrift stores or flea markets. The peace symbol came to become associated with the hippie movement. The VW bus also became their official way of transportation and had gypsy travel like habits, picking up and leaving whenever they desired.
    A notable event created by the hippie movement, was the Summer Of Love (1967). It was a celebration of hippie culture in San Francisco, California. Over thirty thousand people showed up, which was shown by the media, leading to the popularization of this culture. Once summer came to the end, it was the declared that the hippie movement had came to the end. Some ended up living in the street and turned to selling drugs. Violence in communities with a large population of hippies escalated as they stole to survive. Just as the hippie movement emerged abruptly, it ceased to exist.
    This article was particularly interesting for me, because I enjoy reading about this culture and their beliefs. I myself like to advocate for “peace and love”. I feel that in order for this world to progress, we need people to be more receptive and open-minded. We need to be able to respect other people’s beliefs, even if we do not necessarily agree with them. I think the hippie movement did an effective job in evoking the need for unity and tranquility. It is a shame that it ended so suddenly. I feel as if we need another peaceful social movement in order to hopefully bring a decline in racism, transphobia, homophobia, and in the intolerance of certain religions. With this upcoming election, it seems to me as if people are becoming increasingly divided by their support of politicians. Some follow one person, yet refuse to listen to other side’s perspective. They resort to violence and hatred, unwilling to form an unbiased opinion. For instance, over the weekend there was a mass shooting at a gay nightclub that resulted in the deaths of 49 innocent people. It brings me great despair that someone was able to kill so many lives. What does that achieve? Hate only leads to more hate. I believe we need another movement advocating for peace and coexistence in order to absolve this violence. Let the hippies re emerge.

  13. Jordan Collins Says:

    Jordan Collins
    Mr. Pores
    Honors American Literature, Period 5
    5 June 2016
    Independent Reading Assignment
    Coming off the 1960’s, the 1970’s showed an enormous amount of growth for America. As the social norms began to be broken in the decade before, more and more people began to question the world around them. In the 70’s, this growth was evident in many elements of American life. One of the most revolutionary aspects of change was the expansion of Environmentalism. The article “Environmentalism” by Lorraine Elliot explores this idea and the development of the environmental movement through the 1970’s and beyond.
    Initially, the article states the definition of environmentalism, and then goes on to a quick summary of the article, introducing the reader to the two key sects of environmental proponents: anthropocentrism, which bases its support for environmental protection off of the human need for environmental resources, and biocentrism, which supports environmental protection with more of a spiritual, emotional, and appreciative argument.
    First, the article delves into the factions of anthropocentrism: apocalyptic environmentalism and emancipatory environmentalism. Apocalyptic environmentalism, which seemed to back its argument with scientific statistics, gave a pessimistic outlook on the future of our environment. Its main idea was that the degradation that humans were inflicting on the environment was completely unsustainable and would lead to the eventual devastation of the world unless humans made huge sacrifices in order to save it. These sacrifices were usually individual freedoms that would be taken away by increased government regulation. Emancipatory environmentalism, as described in the article, was more “positive and practical.” It focused more on individual, localized efforts making a collectively large difference for the common good. It stressed acts such as recycling, energy-saving techniques, and the use of environmentally-safe products.
    The article then explains the factions of biocentrism, which include social and deep ecology, animal rights, and ecofeminism. Social ecology asserted that the poor social structure of the time, with classes and prejudices categorizing people into groups, was the main cause of environmental ruin, placing much blame on the capitalist structure of the American government. Deep ecology took that idea further, supporting a reorganized social system and suggesting that humans reconnect themselves to the complexity of nature in a soulful, spiritual way. Animal rights was another faction of biocentrism, which focused on the fauna of nature; members of animal rights groups sought to protect animals from human manipulation experimentation, and brutality. Lastly, as the name suggests, ecofeminism was a faction that connected the poor condition of the environment to the poor social status of women. Like deep ecology, they also stressed a spiritual connection with nature.
    To conclude, the article gave a quick summary of the history of the movement, saying how human impact on the environment had always been a problem, but no attempts to face the problem was ever made. Before the 1960’s, only small groups had ever protested against environmental exploitation. Once the 1960’s began, there were numerous groups that were inspired by the new, nonconformist social climate. People began to support “green” political parties in an attempt to spread and acknowledge environmental issues. Many of these were not successful, but there was a significant change in attitude towards human-environment relationships. As time passed, and the 70’s introduced a multitude of environmentalist groups, awareness and sponsorship to ameliorate these issues increased.
    This article was very informative, and, if nothing else, provided a background of definitions behind the environmental movement. It was very information-dense, but I think it would serve a good purpose as a potential source in a research paper because of its concise language and formal overtone. I also commemorate the author’s outstanding organization that made the reading very easy to follow and understand. However, it wouldn’t be the first I would recommend as a fun read due to its density and subject matter. On the other hand, the subject does put the social climate of the 1970’s into a comprehensible perspective. It not only showed the effects of the movements that questioned the earlier political and social trends, but it also brings to light the emerging generation of new thought that was introduced in the 1960’s. The article indirectly unveiled a bit of the history and background to the 1970’s, giving historical significance to the events in and surrounding the decade.

    Works Cited
    Elliott, Lorraine. “Environmentalism.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 05 June 2016. .

  14. Kelvin Mac Says:


    I chose this article because it relates to the topic we’re learning about in our English class. I found this particular article through a simple search of music of the 1950s. I chose this article because I have always been interested in music and how music was back in the 50s.

    This article that I read about called “Rock Music: The 1950s – Bill Haley and Rock ‘n’ Roll” was about rock ‘n’ roll. At first the article has a main focus of introducing Bill Haley. At first they introduce all of his achievements and significant events in his life. Then the article continues to talk about the genre in which Bill Haley sung. The article starts talking about blues, and rhythm and blues and how it is way too sexual, angry, and adult to be accepted into their culture. Finally at the end of the article, the sole purpose is to provide a counter argument for the rebuttal in the previous paragraph. This paragraph talks about how this genre “Rock ‘n’ Roll” was for adolescents and for teenagers. It says that the main purpose is to help teenagers relate to common teenage problems like school, parents, young love, and etc. Also the final section of the article talks about the aspects of the genre. It states that the genre is very heavy beat, loudness, and self-absorbed. This article pretty much focuses on Bill Haley, and the genre of Rock ‘n’ Roll, and the Blues.

    This article was very informative and helped me find what i was interested in. I was interested in the culture and the characteristics of music back in the time of the 1950 to the 1960s. I couldn’t agree any less because I understand that music is always a thing where some adults will disapprove of, but the adolescents and teenagers will be into it and agreeing with it. Just like today, a lot of the adults are judging kids and the music they listen to just because it’s different and more vulgar. But back in the day when adults were kids, they listened to music that was disapproved by their adults in their time. I think that every generation and decade has their own unique genre of music, and there will always be people that disapprove of it. This article definitely helped me open my eyes, and understand the topic that we’re learning in class right now. Especially with the part that included the adults disapproving the music teenagers were listening to. I feel it is this way because children feel like there’s nobody or nothing they can relate to, but they can easily relate to music, and that is probably why teenagers like the music genre of their time.

  15. Selene Ramirez Says:

    Selene Ramirez
    Mr. Pores p.5
    H. American Literature
    June 10, 2016
    1960s: A Decade of Promise and Heartbreak

    I chose this article because we were studying the 1960s in class and it interested me to learn more about the events that happened during this time period. Many events in the sixties changed history and the way people think, such as the youth culture that rose. The 1960s was not only an American changer but it was also world wide.

    The article was about the 1960s obviously and the events that changed history.
    “It was a decade of extremes, of transformational change and bizarre contrasts: flower children and assassins, idealism and alienation, rebellion and backlash. For many in the massive post-World War II baby boom generation, it was both the best of times and the worst of times.”
    John F. Kennedy, Martin Luther King Jr, Elvis Presley, Robert Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson, Neil Armstrong, Rachel Carson, and Richard Nixon were all important people that changed history. On February 1st, Greensboro N. C. experienced a sit-in at a whites-only lunch counter which triggered a huge movement for civil rights. Elvis Presley was an icon of the youth culture that increased youth rebellions. By the end of the decade, John F. Kennedy, Martin Luther King, and Robert Kennedy had been assassinated which increased riots throughout America. Also, women began to fight for their rights more and more. American culture was changing, especially with the invention of televisions along with the Vietnam War. Technological advances arose leading to the “space race” between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. The Soviets sent the first to land a man on the moon (Neil Armstrong). During the 1960s, the environmental movement was born thanks to Rachel Carson’s book Silent Spring. Also, many questioned the integrity of the government especially after Richard Nixon’s Watergate Scandal.

    I think this article was not in chronological order because it talks about events that happened towards the end of the decade and then goes back to talking about events from the beginning of the decade which can be really confusing. The article was interesting overall. It gave me a lot of information about the sixties. It didn’t talk a lot about civil right riots- as much as there were in the 1960s, but it did give some information about fighting for civil rights. The article talked a lot about presidents. The information was very brief but it pointed it out major things that contributed to the change of that era. What interested me the most was that people from the 1960s were well educated and challenged the integrity of the government which still happens in today’s world/ society. The “space race” interested me a lot because it was America competing with another country and it lead to new technological advances; not to mention the television was a big factor of the 1960s which influenced many people in many ways which changed people’s perspective. It was an interesting article but the order wasn’t helpful. I think it did help me get a better understanding of the events that happened in the sixties.

  16. Nicholas Petersen Says:

    Nicholas Petersen
    Honors American Literature
    14 June 2016

    Source: https://www.bostonglobe.com/ideas/2013/06/29/revising-your-writing-again-blame-modernists/WhoH6Ih2kat2RE9DZV3DjP/story.html

    Personally, I chose this article because I tend to revise a lot of times when writing an essay. Not just in correcting errors, but completely changing the organizational flow. I was wondering if people always did major revisions or if writers in a particular time period popularized the concept. It relates to what we are currently studying as it turns out that the modernist time period is when major revisions to literary work became common.

    Article Summary:
    Before the modernist time period, a lot of literary work never underwent any major revisions. There was always spelling and other minor corrections, but the literature work of most never had any transformative changes to not let the first draft completely dictate what the final product will be. During the last century, it became evident that authors began doing large-scale revisions onto their writing to create a better flow and representation of the initial ideas presented in the first draft. It became most prevalent in the era of the modernists. Before them, the romanticist writers even resisted revisions as they believed that the best literature was inspired by organic, creative acts. The modernists emphasized straying away from traditions and major revising was one outlet for them to do so.

    The large-scale revisions allowed the literature to transform into an avant-garde style that the modernists were known for. Some people also attribute this change to the typewriter. The uniformity of the letters and spacing made mistakes more glaring than handwriting. This caused writers like W.H. Auden to question the quality of their entire writing as a piece and exploring in how it can be drastically changed. Ezra Pound’s famous poem “In a Station of the Metro” is a product of major revisions. He first wrote a thirty lined poem, then a poem half the length, and finally deciding on a minimal two line poem that captured the initial theme he was trying to convey.

    Opinion of Article:
    I find a lot of truth in the reasons that compelled writers to turn towards major revising in literary work, as explained in Craig Fehrman’s article. The reason that the modernists revised to elevate the quality of their work past just focusing on correct grammar is the very reason I like to revise my work. While a literature piece can never be perfect, I believe that each additional revision makes it one step closer. After many revisions in succession, a once rough text can become more easily appreciable. Texts are no longer just praised for impeccable grammar or inspiring ideas, but the minute details in word choice and organizational flow. These things are never good enough on the first draft, or at least can still be made better in further drafts.

    I also could relate with the example regarding the typewriter more heavily emphasizing mistakes over handwriting. When I hand write an essay, I have to read carefully to even notice the most glaring mistakes. Typing on the computer where the font is perfectly uniform, a few mistakes tend to jump out at me just at a quick glance. While I have never used a typewriter, the uniform inked letters were of the same effect. My favorite takeaway from this article is knowing where the idea to continually revise your work came from. Most people tend to think it is just a convention of writing that was always around, but the modernists really pushed it into the mainstream of literature.

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